Information Technology Industry TimeLine

-1944 1945-1963 1964-1974 1975-1994 1995-

last addition and/or change on 04 févr. 2003

The post-1995 is a period of "consolidation" of the computer industry, i.e. of disappearance and write-offs of many mergers concluded in the preceding periods. The consolidation reach as well the peripheral, the telecommunications and the software industry. For some (such as IBM) it allowed a restructuration towards other businesses (i.e. services). This mutation  coincides with the retirement of many actors in the birth of computers.

The late 1990s were also marked by the "bubble" generated by the interest born in newly deregulated financial institutions in the data communications and Internet market. Newly created companies went public just for the purpose of grasping the ads ground and/or being reacquired. Old companies often try to match that game and have divested their hard assets. However, the Internet became in that period a normal universe for PC owners by hundreds of millions, all across the world. 

Hardware manufacturing is being subcontracted to specialized companies, buying plants of brand companies and reconfigurating the production across the world. Major actors in that market are in Singapore, Taiwan and China. Microprocessor design remains an American specialty, while memory, DSP and other specialty chips are designed and manufactured all across the world. 

It is yet too early to speculate on the impacts on IT industry that may have the "war against terror" that the Bush administration started after 9-11 (of 2001). The economic conditions that followed that event had a negative impact that added to the burst of the bubble. The search for more efficient tools to improve security might have a positive one on the long range, essentially by removing obstacles raised by partisans of freedom of usage of Internet. It is likely however that the impact of 9-11 will be relatively small and that the 2000s will not see an immediate revolution in the most-advanced countries. The worldwide growth of the IT industry will probably come from countries that were previously deprived from access to that technology (primarily Asia, but also Eastern Europe and hopefully South America).



other USA


rest of the world

Jan 1995   John Chambers named CEO of Cisco    
Jan 1995     Jacques Tordjman buys back consultings activities of EDS-GFI, naming it again GFI  


      death of Konrad Zuse
Feb 1995     introduction of a CMOS version of DPS-9000 code named Jupiter in 0.35µm technology   
1995       NEC introduces a 1G-bits DRAM prototype
1995   development of PostgreSQL by Jolly Chen eventually under Linux    
1995   death of J Presper Eckert, at 76    
1995   Digital releases AltaVista Internet search engine    
1995       Flextronics International is acquired by Singaporean interests
4 Mar 1995       Formosa group establishes Nanya Technology Corp in Linkou (Taiwan) a semi-conductor foundry
Mar 1995   incorporation of Yahoo!    
1995   Seagate acquires Conner Peripherals    
1995   EDS acquires A.T. Kearney, a well known consulting firm    
Apr 1995   introduction of Apple PowerMac with PowerPC 603 chip at 75 MHz    
1995       introduction of Casio Casiopaea PDA under Microsoft Windows CE
1995   introduction of Western Digital Caviar, a 1.6GB EIDE disk    
1995 introduction of AS/400 A 30 based on modified PowerPC, code named Muskie      
1995       acquisition of Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd. (VSEL). by GEC
1995       Philips spins-off Signetics
1995      Serge Tchuruk named CEO of Alcatel-Alsthom renamed Alcatel 1n 1998  
1995   acquisition of Network Systems NSC by StorageTek    
1995       Acorn and Digital agree on manufacturing of ARM at DEC
License later transferred to Intel
23 May 1995   launch of platform independent Java by Sun Microsystems    
May 1995   LDDS renamed Worldcom    
25 May 1995   Cray Computer Company files for chapter 11    
May 1995   introduction of Apple PowerMac 9800 powered by PowerPC 604 at 120MHz    
1995   introduction by Oracle of Network Computer, a terminal based on ARM processor
The NC will not get the success planned by its originator.
1995   acquisition of Convex by Hewlett-Packard    
Jun 1995 IBM acquires Lotus Development System       
1995     Thomson Consumer Electronics renamed Thomson multimedia under Alain Prestat.
The French government attempts to sell it to Korean Daewoo
1 Jul 1995       introduction of PHS phone standard in Japan by NTT and DDI
4 Jul 1995   Louis Monier developed Scooter Web search engine at Digital, later known as AltaVista    
July 1995   Hughes Electronics Corporation buys CAE-Link from CAE Ltd    
1995       introduction of Sega Saturn game console
24 Aug 1995   introduction of Microsoft Windows 95    
Aug 1995   Microsoft introduces MSN Microsoft Networks,    
Sep 1995   Novell resells Unix to SCO    
Sep 1995   announcement of AT&T restructuration in separate business    
1995     introduction of Bull DPS-7000 Artemis containing up to 24 Auriga 2 processors  
1995   Philippe Kahn quits Borland    
1995   acquisition of Tandem by Compaq    
Oct 1995     France allows usage of 2.4GHz band for private communications  
1 Nov 1995   introduction of Intel Pentium Pro at 150 MHz code named P6    
Dec 1995   Bill Gates converts Microsoft to Internet    
Dec 1995   Digital Equipment introduces its Internet search engine AltaVista    
2 Jan 1996       Sir Peter Bromsfield (ex-ICL) named CEO of BT
Jan 1996   Intel introduces Pentium at .035µm at 66/150 MHz with 3.1 million transistors     
23 Jan 1996   Michael Spindler is replaced by Gilbert d'Amelio as Apple CEO     
23 Jan 1996   first release of Java SDK 1.0. Java was designed by James Gosling, at Sun Microsystems    
Feb 1996   Break up of AT&T by the spin-off of Lucent Technologies(including the fledging Bell Labs) and NCR    
Feb 1996   introduction of Digital SA-110 StrongARM microprocessor    
1996     introduction of Bull's Sagister a UNIX system in mainframe clothes  
1996       delivery of NEC 256Mb DRAM
1996   acquisition of Cheyenne Software by Computer Associates    
11 Feb 1996 IBM's Deep Blue defeats Gary Kasparov world chess champion      
1996       introduction of Libretto mini-notebook personal computer by Toshiba
Feb 1996   acquisition of Cray Research by Silicon Graphics    
1996       retirement of Lord Weinstock chairman of GEC replaced by George Simpson
1996   Microsoft acquires Vermeer, the company producing FrontPage     
1996     Infogrammes acquires... ... British games editor Ocean Software
1996       development of blue-laser diode by Shuji Nakamura from Nichia Corporation
Mar 1996   introduction of Palm Pilot PDA    
Mar 1996       introduction of Fujitsu VPP-700 supercomputer
Mar 1996   introduction of AMD K5 with 4,300,000 transistors    
1996       privatization of Deutsche Telekom
1996 opening of Austin Research Lab about advanced circuit design      
Apr 1996   acquisition of Loral by Lockheed-Martin    
13 Apr 1996     Zenith Data Systems merged with Packard-Bell and sold by Bull to NEC  
1996   formation of Global One between Sprint... ... France Télécom... ... and Deutsche Telekom
1996       introduction of Nintendo 64 game console
6 May 1996 signature of an agreement between Apple and IBM on CHRP platform based on PowerPC      
22 May 1996 death of Cuthbert Hurd, at 85, he headed scientific IBM projects in the 1950s      
29 May 1996   death of Jerry Junkins TI's CEO    
1996 creation of IBM Global Services      
1996   Sun engineer Jon Bosak leads World Wide Web Consortium team developing XML    
7 Jun 1996   General Motors relinquishes its control of EDS    
Jun 1996   Tom Engibous named Texas Instruments CEO replacing Jerry Junkins    
10 Jun 1996   Intel announces Pentium at 200 MHz    
Jul 1996   DEC introduces 21164 Alpha microprocessor at 500 MHz    
1996   introduction of Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0    
Sep 1996        Roberto Colanino is named Olivetti's CEO and redirect the company in telecommunications market
26 Aug 1996   Worldcom acquires MFS Communications Company, including Internet UUNET network and infrastructure of AOL and Compuserve    
Sep 1996   introduction of Microsoft Windows/ NT 4    
5 Oct 1996   death of Seymour Cray, 70 from an automobile accident    
1996   Southwestern Bell announces merger plans with Pacific Telesis.     
1996       introduction of Psion Series 3c PDA
1996       construction of an AMD fab at Dresden, Eastern Germany
1996     IPO of France Telecom  
20 Dec 1996     privatization of Bull  
Dec 1996   acquisition of NeXt by Apple    
Mar 1997   acquisition of US Robotics (including Palm) by 3Com    
2 Apr 1997   acquisition of NexGen by AMD    
1997   acquisition of Compuserve by AOL    
1997       development of a 4-Gbits DRAM by NEC
1997   acquisition of Encore servers maker by Sun Microsystems    
1997     acquisition of Chorus Systems by Sun Microsystems  
1997   acquisition of Chips & Technologies chipset maker by Intel    
2 Apr 1997   introduction of AMD K6 microprocessor with 8,800,000 transistors    
Apr 1997   Acquisition of Microcom by Compaq    
Apr 1997     introduction of Bull single chip processor on DPS-7000 code-named Auriga 2 with 7.7 million transistors  
May 1997   introduction of Intel Pentium II (code named Klamath) with 7.5 million transistors    
May 1997   Craig Barrett named Intel's president replacing Andy Grove    
1997     Thierry Breton Bull's general manager is named CEO of Thomson Multimedia.  
9 Jun 1997 introduction of a new generation of IBM S/390 parallel servers G3 and G4 based on CMOS technology      
1 Jul 1997     Infogrammes Entertainment acquires Philips Media  
Jul 1997   G d'Amelio resigns as Apple CEO    
Sep 1997     Guy de Panafieu is named Bull's CEO  
16 Sep 1997   Steve Jobs named Apple interim CEO     
1997     introduction of Wanadoo Internet access provider by France Telecom  
1997 IBM is retreating from the DRAM market...     and founds with Toshiba Dominion Semiconductors 
1997   acquisition by Bell Atlantic of Nynex    
1997   Sun's new server family introduced. Includes the 64-processor Sun Enterprise 10000 server    
1997       introduction of Psion series 5 PDA
1997   introduction of Dragon Systems Naturally Speaking speech recognition program    
1997     Daimler Benz sells its shares of Cap-Gemini Cap Gemini sells its shares in debis Systemhaus
1997       the British telecommunications operator Mercury is renamed Cable & Wireless communications
1997   National Semiconductors acquires Cyrix    
Sep 1997 IBM introduces Workpad PDA under Palm license      
Sep 1997   Amdahl Corp becomes completely owned by Fujitsu     
Sep 1997 IBM announces usage of copper instead of aluminum in chips circuitry      
7 Oct 1997   introduction of Sun Microsystems UltraSparc III microprocessor     
7 Oct 1997   Sun sues Microsoft for breaching its contract obligation to support Java compatible with Sun    
21 Oct 1997   sale of semiconductor division of DEC (Alpha manufacturing) to Intel    
Nov 1997   introduction of Apple Power Mac G3 with PowerPC 750 at 350MHz    
10 Nov 1997   Worldcom takes over MCI, for $40B rebuffing British Telecom    
Nov 1997   acquisition of Digital Equipment by Compaq for $9.6B, dela confirmed in Jun 1998    
Jan 1998   Raytheon Company buys Hughes Aircraft Company's defense electronics operation    
Jan 1998       introduction of Fujitsu GS8800 CMOS main frame computers
1998   Southwestern Bell is renamed SBC    
Feb 1998   Apple abandons Newton PDA manufacturing    
Mar 1998   introduction of Palm III PDA    
May 1998   introduction of Apple iMac    
May 1998   introduction of Intel Itanium, born Merced    
May 1998 creation of IBM Global Services       
1998   introduction of wireless BlueTooth standard by Intel, IBM....   ...Nokia and Toshiba
1998   AOL acquires Netscape    
1998       Samsung establish a plant at Austin TX
May 1998   DoJ, following Netscape and Sun, sues Microsoft, on  bundling of Internet Explorer in Windows    
May 1998   introduction of AMD K6-2 with 9,300,000 transistors, including 3DNow extensions    
1998     France Telecom acquires Océane, an Internet access provider  
1998       foundation of Symbiant between Psion, Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola to port ESCOM operating system on mobile telephones
1998   Veritas buys Seagate Software    
1998   introduction of Apple PowerMac G3    
1998       Sega introduces 64-bits Dreamcast
1998     SGS-Thomson renamed... ... STMicroelectronics with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland
1998     Matra Harris Semiconductors (MHS) is acquired by Atmel  
1998   disclosure of AMD Athlon, code-named K7 processor for PC    
1998   Sun Microsystems acquires Encore for $150M    
1998   Alcatel buys DSC    
29 Jun 1998   introduction of Intel Xeon microprocessor, based on Pentium II    
21 Jul 1998     incorporation of Equant that groups the non-airline businesses of SITA  
1998   acquisition of Pacific Bell and of Nevada Bell by SBC    
Aug 1998   introduction of Microsoft Windows 98    
24 Aug 1998   introduction by Intel of Pentium II Deschutes    
Sep 1998   Handspring introduces its first PDA under PalmOS    
Sep 1998 IBM introduces its Microdrive, initially at 340MB, integrated by HP, Canon, Minolta and Nikon in their photo cameras      
Sep 1998   foundation of Google by Larry Page and Sergey Brin (from Stanford University)    
21 Oct 1998 introduction of IBM S/390 Parallel server G5      
Nov 1998   start of operation of Iridium LEO satellite network
Iridium will not meet a marketing sucess and will be bought back by US government agencies
Jan 1999   Dick Brown replaces Aberthal as EDS CEO    
Feb 1999   Palm introduces Palm IIIx and Palm V handheld PDA    
Feb 1999   introduction of Intel Pentium III code-named Katmai in CMOS tenchnology 0.25µm    
Mar 1999       introduction of NTT Docomo i-mode i Japan
1999 IBM offers Linux and Apache web server, and DB2 upon Linux on its systems.      
1999   Microsoft establish a tablet PC project with Dick Bras (ex-Oracle), Butler Lampson, Chuck Thacker, Bert Keely under Alex Loeb    
1999       acquisition by Sun MicroSystems of the German company StarDivision producer of Star Office, an office automation suite developed in Java
29 Apr 1999       Northern Telecom Limited in Canada changes name into Networks Corporation
1999   EMC² acquires Data General    
1999   SBC acquires Ameritech (itself a consolidation of Illinois Bell, Indiana Bell, Wisconsin Telephone, Michigan Bell, and Ohio Bell    
May 1999   Palm introduces Palm VII communicating PDA    
Jun 1999        
1999   Vodafone acquires AirTouch for $62B    
Jun 1999       introduction of Sony's robot dog Aibo
Jun 1999 IBM introduces Public Source License      
1999   Alcatel buys Xylan    
1999   EDS transfers to MCI-Worldcom its network infrastructure facilities    
1 Jul 1999   the remaining units of Control Data Corporation are bought by...   ...Syntegra a systems integration subsidiary of BT Telecom
1999     Infogrammes acquire control of GT Interactive in the US  
Jul 1999   Yahoo acquires Online Anywhere   introduction of Psion Series 5mx PDA with EPOC Release 5 software
Jul 1999   Michael D. Capellas named Compaq's CEO    
Jul 1999   CMGI acquires a majority of AltaVista shares    
1999       take-over of Telecom Italia by Olivetti for $7B
Sep 1999       introduction of Psion Series 7 PDA
Sep 1999   introduction of Apple PowerMac G4    
1999       establishment of a second Samsung plant at Hwasung, Korea
Sep 1999       Software AG introduces Tamino, a XML database system
1999   introduction of AMD Athlon    
1999   Computer Associates acquires Platinum Technology International     
1999   merge of Honeywell and Allied Texas    
Oct 1999   introduction of Palm Vx    
1999       GEC is renamed Marconi plc
5 Oct 1999   Worldcom and Sprint announce their $129B merger    
Oct 1999       introduction of Psion Revo PDA
19 Nov 1999       acquisition of Orange plc, a Hutchinson subsidiary by Mannesmann for $32B
Nov 1999   introduction of Pentium III Coppermine at 0.18µm    
29 Nov 1999       NEC and Hitachi establish a comon subsidiary Elpida to produce DRAM semi-conductors
Dec 1999       deceiving introduction of WAP telephones in Europe
8 Dec 1999   shipment of J2EE Java platform by Sun    
1 Jan 2000 computer users supports without significant problems ... ...the Y2K bug, caused by old 1960s and 1970s  program...  limiting dates to only 2 digits  
Jan 2000   merge of AOL and Time-Warner    
2000   Microsoft publishes C# programming language    
Feb 2000   L-3 Communications acquires from Raytheon its flight simulation business    
Feb 2000   Microsoft announces its new version of Windows NT as Windows 2000    
2000   Sun acquires Cobalt Networks Intel servers    
Apr 2000   Compaq introduces iPAQ pocketPC PDA    
2000     Bull introduces Olympus a version of DPS-9000 with twin-architecture (GCOS8 and Unix)  
2000   Alcatel buys Newbridge    
Jul 2000       3G UMTS auctions in Germany for $45B
Jul 2000   introduction of Apple PowerMac G4 Cube    
13 Jul 2000   termination of merger discussions between Sprint and MCI    
26 Jul 2000   Napster a pear-to-pear early company loses suit    
2000   merge of QWest and US West (itself a consolidation of Pacific Northwest Bell, Mountain Bell, and Northwestern Bell    
2000   Hector Ruiz named president & COO of AMD    
2000   Bell Atlantic and GTE merge into Verizon    
Aug 2000   Arthur Andersen is splitted into a an audit company that keeps the name Andersen and a service company renamed Accenture    
2000     Cap Gemini acquires Ernst & Young consulting services, and is renamed Cap Gemini  Ernst & Young  
2000       Toshiba takes full control of Dominion Semiconductors, its joint venture with IBM
30 Sep 2000   spin-off of Avaya, Inc , networking group of Lucent    
2000   Computer Associates acquires Sterling Software    
2000    Death of Philip Katz, inventor of PKZip compression software    
2000   Qwest divests long distance operations in order to complete its purchase of USWest    
2000   Lucent Technologies divest itself of its enterprise systems division creating Avaya Communications    
1 Jan 2001     unbundling of local lines of France Telecom  
2001   introduction of Mac OS/X by Apple    
2001       creation of Epida Memory Company a joint venture between NEC and Hitachi for DRAM production
Mar 2001   introduction of Palm 505 color PDA    
2001     acquisition of Bull CP8 subsidiary by Schlumberger  
1 Apr 2001   spin-off of Agere Sytems, Lucent's microelectronics business    
Apr 2001        Ericsson enters in a joint venture with Sony, creating Sony-Ericsson
2001       acquisition of Sema Group by Schlumberger
2001       take-over of Mannesmann AG by Vodafone.
France télécom acquires Orange assets
2001   acquisition of Hasbro Interactive by French Infogrammes. Hasbro renamed Infogrammes Interactive, Inc    
2001     IPO of Orange, the mobile subsidiary of France Telecom  
17 Jun 2001       death of Tom Kilburn designer of Manchester early machines
Jul 2001   Dr. Eric E. Schmidt (from Novell) appointed as Google's CEO    
Aug 2001 Shipment of IBM Ascii-White MPP supercomputer to Livermore      
Sep 2001   announcement of intended merger between H-P and Compaq    
Oct 2001   introduction of Windows XP by Microsoft unifying its lines of operating system    
2001   introduction of Apple iPod MP3 portable player    
2001     IPO of Wanadoo, the Internet Access provider of France Télécom  
2001   EDS acquire SABRE infrastructure assets    
Nov 2001     Death of F H Raymond, founder of SEA  
2001   Sun's UltraSPARC III processor debuts in Sun Blade 1000 workstations and Sun Fire 280R workgroup servers.    
Dec 2001     divestiture of a large part of Bull-Integris services in Europe to STERIA  
2 Dec 2001     Pierre Bonelli named Bull's CEO  
2001   introduction of Microsoft X-Box game console    
Dec 2001       failure of the Belgian company Lernaut&Hauspie after attempting to capture the market of speech recognition
Jan 2002   introduction of Apple new iMac    
Jan 2002 Sanmina-SCI  manufactures desk top PC  for IBM USA      
2002   introduction of Intel Pentium IV    
Apr 2002 Sam Palmisano replaces Lou Gerstner as IBM's CEO      
2002     introduction of Bull DPS7000/XTA using Intel CPU to emulate GCOS7  
Apr 2002 IBM transfers its storage business in a joint-venture owned 70% by Hitachi and named Hitachi Global Storage technologies, headquartered in San Jose CA...     ...IBM announces the closure of its Hungarian plant for manuacturing disks at Székesfehérvár, due to quality problems
2002       shipment of NEC Earthlink MPP supercomputer built with 640 nodes and 5104 MIPS processors at 35.61 Teraflops
2002     introduction of Escala IL400R and IL600R based on Intel Itanium, running AIX, Linux or WindowsNT  
30 Apr 2002   Bernard J Ebbers founder of Worldcom forced to step down, replaced by John Sidgmore    
May 2002   Conclusion of the merge between Hewlett-Packard and Compaq    
May 2002   introduction of Apple XServer under MacOS/X    
May 2002       retirement of Hiroshi Yamauchi, 74 president of Nintendo since 1951, replaced by Satoru Iwata
Jun 2002   introduction of AMD Athlon XP  2500+ based on Thoroughbred 0.13µ 2 GHz    
Jun 2002   Micron announces its acquisitions of Toshiba's Dominion Semiconductor and of the Korean Hynix    
Jun 2002 IBM announces the Nanodrive (Millipede project) on the size of a coin      
Jun 2002     announcement of the acquisition of Thales IT services by GFI, project abandoned on Sep 5th, 2002  
1 Jul 2002   acquisition of TRW by Northrop Grumann for $7.8B    
6 Jul 2002   introduction of Intel Itanium 2, code-named McKinley with 500M transistors on 0.13µm lithography    
1 Jul 2002   Hector Ruiz named AMD's CEO replacing founder Jerry Sanders    
17 Jul 2002       Ron Somers is demoted as CEO of Deutsches Telkom, He will be replaced in November 2002 by Kai-Uwe Ricke
22 Jul 2002   Worldcom files bankruptcy (chapter 11)    
30 Jul 2002 IBM acquires PriceWaterhouse Coopers consulting division for $3.5B      
6 Aug 2002       death of professor Edsger Dijkstra
Aug 2002     Michel Gien founder of Chorus Systems leave Sun Microsystems and Found Jaluna a producer of real-time opertaing system  
Aug 2002       NEC spins off its Semiconductor division as a separate company. This decision was publicly challenged by the former president Sekimoto who was fired as an adviser in December 2002
Aug 2002   Napster, producing peer to peer software, was planning to be acquired by...   ...Bertelsman group of Germany. Courts barred the merge leading Napster to bankruptcy.
12 Sep 2002     Michel Bon head of France Telecom resigns facing risky investments ... ... noticeably in Mobilcom mobile operator in Germany
15 Sep 2002   Charles Simonyi, a Microsoft software pioneer, leaves MS to found a start up named Intentional Software in Bellevue WA    
2 Oct 2002     Thierry Breton, previously head of Thomson MultiMedia and ex-deputy president of Bull, is named as head of France Telecom  
31 Oct 2002   Microsoft gets confirmation on the consent decree settling the DoJ and states suit    
8 Nov 2002       death of John Goosens, ceo of Belgacom
Nov 2002   introduction of PalmOS 5.0 featuring ARM architecture on Sony Clié and Palm Titanium PDA.    
Nov 2002   introduction of Microsoft Tablet PC operating system    
11 Nov 2002   resignation from H-P of Michael Capellas ex-pdt of Compaq before the merger, to become CEO of Worldcom.    
18 Nov 2002   Charles Wang CEO and founder in 1976 of Computer Associates is named honorary chairman and is replaced by president Sanjay Kumar. CA was accused on accounting malpractices by SEC.    
25 Nov 2002     François Bancilhon ex-INRIA founder of O2 database technology company named CEO of MandrakeSoft Linux distributor  
Dec 2002 IBM acquires Rational Software      
19 Dec 2002       Chris Gent CEO of Vodafone announces his resignation effective July 2003
Dec 2002 IBM acquires...   ... Matra Datavision, a CAD subsidiary of the aircraft manufacturer EADS  
19 Dec 2002     Roland Lassus, founder of Gemplus, is definitively ousted from the company chaired by Alex Mandl  
22 Dec 2002   Microsoft and Sun Microsystems settle their dispute over Java. Microsoft obtains a Java license on Sun conditions for compatibility    
26 Dec 2002     France Telecom sells... ... its cable TV subsidiary Casema in Netherlands for 665M€ to investors groups Carlyle and Providence
28 Dec 2002   Pinaccle acquires ...   the German company Steinberg developer of music program Cubase for 27M$
7 Jan 2002 .... ...   ... Hitachi introduces 4GB 1 in Compact Flash II Microdrive using femto slider technology from ex-IBM San Jose lab 
10 Jan 2003 IBM announces the outsourcing of servers manufacturing to Sanmina and Selectron companies, that include transfer of Guadalajara end Greenock plants      
13 Jan 2003   Steve Case chairman & CEO of AOL Time Warner announces his resignation effective May 2003    
21 Jan 2003       NEC's president Koji Nishigaki relinquishes the CEO position to Akinobu Kanasugi 


  • ainsi naquit l'informatique by René Moreau Dunod 1984
  • Inside Intel by Tim Jakson Harper-Collins 1997
  • IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems by Pugh, Johnson, and Palmer MIT Press 
  • IBM's Early Computers by Basche, Johnson, Palmer and Pugh MIT Press 1986
  • Inside the AS/400 by Frank Soltis Duke Press 1996
  • ICL a Business and Technical History by Martin Campbell-Kelly Clarendon 1989
  • King of the Seven Dwarves by Homer Oldfield IEEE 1996
  • ... and the World Wide Web

© Jean Bellec 2002

-1944 1945-19631964-1974 1975-1994