BULL Sales & Maintenance Network
The list is organized alphabetically by
country. the actual organization was usually by Areas. The profile of
Areas depended of the relations between Bull and its American partners. In
the 1960s, Italy and UK were managed directly by General Electric. Mexico and
Eastern Asia was added to Honeywell's control. In the late 1980s, North America,
Italy and UK became dependent of the Paris management.
Significant divestitures occurred in the 1990s and the early 2000s. North American operations were sold in part to Wang Corporation and some European service operations sold to the French service company STERIA.
AlgeriaBefore the independence obtained in 1962, Bull had a few punched cards installations in Algeria. Later, with the socialist orientation of the Algerian government, CII was, prior the CII-HB merger, a privileged supplier for administrations and university.
In 1933, Bull established an agent Sociedad Guillermo Kraft. Around 1948, it became Bull Kraft Argentina. It was replaced by a Bull-General Electric subsidiary in 1965.
Bull, which had an agent in 1933, established a sales subsidiary Bull Datenverarbeitungsmaschinen in 1962
A subsidiary of CMB was established in 1939 as Société Belge des Machines Bull (SBMB). On May 29th 1960, SBMB was renamed Bull-Belgique. Bull Belgique secured a large order from RTT Régie des Téléphone set Télégraphes for a Gamma 60.
a subsidiary Maquinas Bull do Brasil was established in Brazil in 1960. Later (in the 1980s), this subsidiary established a partnership with ABC and eventually produced DPS-7 and DPS-7000 computers under the umbrella of government "buy Brazilian act".
Canada has always been integrated with the North American organization, eventually in NAP (North America and Pacific).
The People's Republic of China Beijing Representative Office was open in 1984 by Bull S.A (Area IV) and was then reporting to Bull Far East in Singapore til 1991.
Bull and Honeywell Bull operations merged in 1991 and Greater China operations (PRC Hong Kong Taiwan) were managed from Beijing HQ.
Bull had at some time (in the early 1980s a complete de facto monopoly on the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) in the administration and the oil industry.
A representative agent Jörgen Koenig Petersen was established on 26 January 1948, replaced by a Bull-GE subsidiary in 1965.
The distribution of GE, Honeywell and Bull products in Finland was done since 6 June1962 through an agent: Finska Kabelfabriken AB, later renamed Nokia Oy. Around 1990, the data processing division of Nokia was sold to ICL of UK, a company owned by Fujitsu.
Among the countries of the former French Africa, Gabon was one of richest thanks to oil. Bull acquired in this country an important position by securing the contracts of Elf-Gabon and of government agencies.
The history of the German subsidiary of Bull may be traced back to the World War II situation where the German company Wanderer Werke was appointed by Third Reich as the supervisor of Machines Bull and "imported" a substantial amount of Bull's equipment in Germany.
After the war, Bull was able to "recuperate" some of those equipments.
Bull was represented by an agent Exacta Büromaschinen GmbH, renamed later Exacta Continental in 1953.
On 4 July 1960, CMB established in Köln a fully-owned sales subsidiary Bull Deutschland Lochkartenmaschinen that hired some personal of Wanderer Werke.
Bull Deutschland became one of the most important sales subsidiary of Bull (and of its subsequent avatars) in Europe.
However, market's share of Bull in Germany never reached a critical size since the dawn of computers (it had reached 9% at the Series 150 time). It never set up a laboratory or a manufacturing exceeding repairing capabilities in a country where Siemens, Telefunken and Nixdorf as well as IBM Germany were considered native EDP producers.
In the late 1950s Bull started to have an association with Nixdorf that designed electronic calculators for Bull punched card equipments. But this relations stopped in the 1960s.
CII was a Siemens partner in Unidata in the 1970s and acquired Siemens France sales network while divesting to Siemens its embryonic sales network in Germany.
In 1959, Bull establishes as agent Denxas and Trakas. A sales subsidiary was established on 24 February 1961. It was also covering Turkey.
In 1939, a sales unit was created in Budapest under L. Kerner for South-East Europe. L Kerner had been previously responsible for USSR.
Bull established a partnership in the 1980s with PSI Computers of Bangalore in India. This partnership included manufacturing under license Bull DPS-7000 and subcontracting engineering and software maintenance to Indian engineers working in Les Clayes and Bangalore. PSI was plagued by financial difficulties that caused Bull increasing its stake in the common subsidiary. But eventually, Bull resold its participation to Indian interests.
Iran was before the Islamic Revolution an important customer for Honeywell. Honeywell had sold H-6000s for the Iran Imperial Air Force and other military institutions.
The Group representative in Israel, in the 1970s and the 1980s, was Honeywell through HIS Italia.
Bull had established a common subsidiary with Olivetti on Dec 7th 1949, as a distributor of Compagnie des Machines Bull card punch equipments. Olivetti-Bull also distributed Gamma 3 and Gamma ET first generation computers. In 1961, Olivetti-Bull sold to the large Milanese bank Credito Italiano one Gamma 60 large computer.
In April 27th 1962, Bull sold his 45% shares of Olivetti-Bull to its Italian partner which became Bull's exclusive distributor in Italy.
In 1964, both Olivetti computers and Bull were acquired by General Electric. GEISI the Italian subsidiary of GE became provider of the GE-115 small computer, sold worldwide. The sales arm of GEISI , inherited from Olivetti-Bull, distributed also US produced GE-400 and GE-600 as well as GE-55/58 produced by Bull-GE.
After the acquisition of GE computer interests by Honeywell, the situation stayed unchanged and Honeywell Information Systems Italia sold also Level-64 (and later DPS-7) manufactured in France and Level-62 (later DPS-4) designed and manufactured in Italy.
When Bull acquired Honeywell, the Italian sales network became more integrated with the Bull's European network.
Bull first involvement in Japan started on May 8th 1962, when Bull concludes a distribution agreement with Mitsubishi Shoji Kaisha. The main achievement of that relation was the installation of a Gamma 60 computer by Mitsubishi in 1963.
General Electric had a license agreement with Toshiba, but the sales were limited to process control computer licensing. In the mid-1960s, under MITI umbrella, Toshiba bought licenses for the GE-600, it import a few models and started to design derivatives (initially versions adapted to Japanese standards, later technical improvements) from that product.
Around 1965, Nippon Electric Company (NEC) had concluded with Honeywell the same type of licensing on the H-200 series, that were extended in 1973 to the Series 60. NEC commit itself heavily on Level 64, by dispatching engineers in France and developing more powerful models.
IN the early 1975, MITI strongly recommend that a merge take place between Toshiba and NEC mainframe computer divisions what made sense because the owner of their respective licenses was Honeywell. A joint company NECTIS was established, but for all practical purpose Toshiba was absorbed by NEC.
However, Honeywell sold also directly computers by its Japan subsidiary. The sales were mainly to customers rival of NEC (Sumitomo group) and Toshiba, and not themselves computers producers (Oki, Fuji groups). Theoretically, Honeywell Japan had distribution rights for all Honeywell and Bull products. In fact, it focus essentially on Level 66.
Honeywell Japan was sold to NEC circa 1985, forming NEC Systems subsidiary company, that is focalized on the maintenance of GCOS8 systems in Japan (ACOS6 the NEC operating system having somewhat diverged from Honeywell version.
Since 1986, Bull has a local representative named Bull K.K. that does OEM sales of software and smart cards licenses and products while also handling Bull-NEC relations.
In 1984, Bull and NEC concluded an agreement to attribute to Bull (combination of Paris and Phoenix labs) the design of a CMOS processor for the ACOS6 systems for NEC.
The Bull representation in Beyrouth Derviche y Haddad was also responsible in 1962 of dealing with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen and Syria.
In 1953, an agent was established in Mexico, Sociedad Equipos Contables Europeos SA. On April 10th 1963 French subsidiary of Bull-General Electric, Bull de Mexico, was established in Mexico. To satisfy Mexican interests a card equipment repair and refurbish facility was established as a manufacturing plant.
Mexico was part of Latin America Area and was steered by French executives.
After the Honeywell merger, Mexico was let to Honeywell and joined into North American Operations.
Société Marocaine des Machines Bull was established in 1950
Bull was associated in Netherands with Kamatec a small manufacturer, creating in July 1948, Bullatec that becomes a manufacturer of card sorters in Amsterdam for Bull. Eventually, when the Lion plant was closed all sorters were manufactured in Amsterdam. In 1958, Bullatec was renamed Bull Netherlands.
Norway was the cradle of Machines Bull. A subsidiary of CMB Bull Norsk A.S. was established in 1958.
It has to be remembered that the first transactional system (TDS under GCOS3) was implemented for Norwegian Post Office by a Bull Special Systems team.
On March 23rd 1955 Compagnie des machines Bull created a sales subsidiary Sociedade Portuguesa de Maquinas Bull.
Bull, until the 1980s did not have a representative in the capital of USSR, and did sell in that country from the Paris headquarters. Systems maintenance was done by the "customer",, that sent people for training in Paris. Important contracts were concluded: Gosbank in Moscow and Leningrad, Tass Agency in Moscow, Togliatti car plant.
All contracts were scrutinized by COCOM.
During the last years of USSR, a Moscow bureau opened by Bull.
Bull was represented in 1951 by an agent Guillermo Truniger. a subsidiary Sociedad Guillermo Truniger. In July 1962, a subsidiary was established Sociedad Anonimo Bull de España (SABE).
Bull established an agent (Hadar Scmidt) on February 1st 1950. A subsidiary Svenska Bull Maskin A.B. was created on October 17th 1959. This subsidiary was consolidated with the subsidiary of RCA on July 12th 1962 and inherited of a RCA501 in its computation center. Shortly before the acquisition by Genera Electric, in 1964, ASEA ordered a GE-635 that was the first delivery of that line in Europe.
Bull was represented initially by Egli. In 1947, a subsidiary Bull Lochkarten Maschinen was created in Zürich.
Compagnie des Machines Bull started to sell card equipment in UK by selling, in OEM, some machines to British Tabulating Machines, an heir of Hollerith Company. In June 1959, it establish a joint venture (50%-50%) with the printing company De La Rue, named De La Rue Bull Machines Ltd that sold Series 150 equipments. In 1963, Bull reduced its equity in that company.
In 1964, General Electric had established a subsidiary in London and sold a sizeable amount of GE-200, and GE-400 computers as well as French produced Gamma 10 and GE-58. GEIS, Ltd was one of the first GE units to manage to resell the leased park to achieve better book value.
When Honeywell took over in 1970, its British subsidiary, HIS Ltd, took over the GE sales. It succeeded to sign many contracts for the Level 66, including in the British public sector. It also install a reasonable number of Level 64 (later DPS-7) and Level 62.
HIS-UK came under Paris umbrella in 1987 after the take over of the Honeywell business by Bull.
Bull products were not distributed in USA before 1948, when Remington Rand acquired distribution rights for Bull punched card equipments. A New-York bureau Bull Corporation of America established in 1960, was a liaison office and manages OEM sales of card equipments.
General Electric, Bull becoming part of, sold GE-58 business minicomputers.
Honeywell Information Systems (North American Organization) distributed Level 64 from France and Level 62 from Italy. In 1985, Bull acquired HIS : HIS NAO became Honeywell-Bull but sales of overseas products actually decreased. Eventually, the USA sales network was sold to Wang that continued to sell a few Bull products.
In 1948, Bull established Sociedad Guillermo Katz del Uruguay as a sales agent; in 1963, Compagnie des machines Bull established a direct subsidiary.
The former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a geographical area allocated to the Italian subsidiary of Bull, so there were representatives of Olivetti-Bull, GEISI and HIS Italy staying in Beograd. In the 1960s a disc based Gamma 30 was installed in Elektroinvest, the electric components manufacturer at Sarajevo (presently Bosnia).
There are some countries where direct sales of GE, Honeywell and Bull products have been inexistent.
Revision : 17 février 2015.